The Political Economy of Spanish America in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1850
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Madero's forces defeated the federal army in early , assumed temporary control of the government and won a second election later on November 6, Madero undertook moderate reforms to implement greater democracy in the political system but failed to satisfy many of the regional leaders in what had become a revolutionary situation. Madero's failure to address agrarian claims led Zapata to break with Madero and resume the revolution.
Other revolutionary leaders such as Villa, Zapata, and Venustiano Carranza continued to militarily oppose the federal government, now under Huerta's control. Allies Zapata and Villa took Mexico City in March , but found themselves outside of their elements in the capital and withdrew to their respective bastions.
This allowed Carranza to assume control of the central government. The Mexican Constitution of , still the current constitution, was proclaimed but initially little enforced. The efforts against the other revolutionary leaders continued.
Zapata was assassinated on April 10, Finally in Villa was also assassinated. Under the Constitution a liberal government is implemented but some of the aspirations of the working and rural classes remained unfulfilled. See also, Agrarian land reform in Mexico.
State and Society in Spanish America during the Age of Revolution
The prestige of Germany and German culture in Latin America remained high after the war but did not recover to its pre-war levels. Sports became increasingly popular, drawing enthusiastic fans to large stadia. In Brazil, however, sporting and political rivalries slowed progress as opposing factions fought to control of international sport. The Great Depression posed a great challenge to the region. The collapse of the world economy meant that the demand for raw materials drastically declined, undermining many of the economies of Latin America.
Intellectuals and government leaders in Latin America turned their backs on the older economic policies and turned toward import substitution industrialization. The goal was to create self-sufficient economies, which would have their own industrial sectors and large middle classes and which would be immune to the ups and downs of the global economy.
Despite the potential threats to United States commercial interests, the Roosevelt administration — understood that the United States could not wholly oppose import substitution. Roosevelt implemented a Good Neighbor policy and allowed the nationalization of some American companies in Latin America. The Platt Amendment was also repealed, freeing Cuba from legal and official interference of the United States in its politics. In the postwar period, the expansion of communism became the greatest political issue for both the United States and governments in the region.
Following the Costa Rica Civil War , the nation established a new constitution and was recognized as the first legitimate democracy in Latin America  However, the new Costa Rican government, which now was constitutionally required to ban the presence of a standing military, did not seek regional influence and was distracted further by conflicts with neighboring Nicaragua.
Several socialist and communist insurgencies broke out in Latin America throughout the entire twentieth century, but the most successful one was in Cuba. The Cuban Revolution was led by Fidel Castro against the regime of Fulgencio Batista , who since was the principal autocrat in Cuba.
Despite the repeal of the Platt Amendment, the United States still had considerable influence in Cuba, both in politics and in everyday life. In fact Cuba had a reputation of being the "brothel of the United States," a place where Americans could find all sorts of licit and illicit pleasures, provided they had the cash. Despite having the socially advanced constitution of , Cuba was plagued with corruption and the interruption of constitutional rule by autocrats like Batista. Batista began his final turn as the head of the government in a coup.
The coalition that formed under the revolutionaries hoped to restore the constitution, reestablish a democratic state and free Cuba from the American influence. The revolutionaries succeeded in toppling Batista on January 1, Castro, who initially declared himself as a non-socialist, initiated a program of agrarian reforms and nationalizations in May , which alienated the Eisenhower administration —61 and resulted in the United States breaking of diplomatic relations, freezing Cuban assets in the United States and placing an embargo on the nation in The Kennedy administration — authorized the funding and support of an invasion of Cuba by exiles.
The invasion failed and radicalized the revolutionary government's position. Cuba officially proclaimed itself socialist and openly became an ally of the Soviet Union. The military collaboration between Cuba and the Soviet Union, which included the placement of intercontinental ballistic missiles in Cuba precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis of October This was further fueled by Cuban and United States intervention which led to a political polarization.
The Atlantic Revolutions and American Independence (1776–1826)
Most South American countries were in some periods ruled by military dictatorships that were supported by the United States of America. Around the s, the regimes of the Southern Cone collaborated in Operation Condor killing many leftist dissidents, including some urban guerrillas. The set of specific economic policy prescriptions that were considered the "standard" reform package were promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, DC-based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund IMF , World Bank , and the US Treasury Department during the s and '90s.
In recent years, several Latin American countries led by socialist or other left wing governments—including Argentina and Venezuela—have campaigned for and to some degree adopted policies contrary to the Washington Consensus set of policies. Other Latin counties with governments of the left, including Brazil, Chile and Peru, have in practice adopted the bulk of the policies. Also critical of the policies as actually promoted by the International Monetary Fund have been some US economists, such as Joseph Stiglitz and Dani Rodrik , who have challenged what are sometimes described as the "fundamentalist" policies of the International Monetary Fund and the US Treasury for what Stiglitz calls a "one size fits all" treatment of individual economies.
The term has become associated with neoliberal policies in general and drawn into the broader debate over the expanding role of the free market, constraints upon the state, and US influence on other countries' national sovereignty. Since the s, or s in some countries, left-wing political parties have risen to power. The conservative wave Portuguese : onda conservadora is a political phenomenon that emerged in mid in South America.
In Brazil, it began roughly around the time Dilma Rousseff , in a tight election, won the presidential election , kicking off the fourth term of the Workers' Party in the highest position of government. The subsequent economic crisis of and investigations of corruption scandals led to a right-wing movement that sought to rescue ideas from economic liberalism and conservatism in opposition to left-wing policies.
Americas in the Age of Revolution | Yale University Press
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Latin America: Definition. Main article: Pre-Columbian. Main articles: Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. See also: Latin American wars of independence. Main article: Washington Consensus.
See also: Pink tide. See also: Conservative wave. History of the Americas. Indigenous peoples Indigenous population Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact theories Discovery Exploration European colonization Spanish colonization French colonization Portuguese colonization British colonization Columbian Exchange Decolonization. History of North America. History of Central America. History of the Caribbean. History of South America.
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- The Political Economy Of Spanish America In The Age Of Revolution, by Kenneth J. Andrien;
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Dependencies and other territories. The Idea of Latin America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. Latin America: A Regional Geography.
The Political Economy Of Spanish America In The Age Of Revolution, 1750 1850
New York: John Wiley and Sons. Dozer, Donald Marquand Latin America: An Interpretive History. New York: McGraw-Hill. Szulc, Tad Latin America. New York Times Company. Olien, Michael D. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Black, Jan Knippers ed. Boulder: Westview Press. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list link Bruns, E. Bradford New York: Prentice-Hall.
Skidmore, Thomas E. Smith Modern Latin America 6 ed. New York: Cambridge University Press A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins. Retrieved Ideas viajeras y sus objetos. Glenn Comparative Studies in Society and History. Retrieved December 13, Sheinin, ed. Kellogg Institute. El Universal Mexico. Archived from the original on Retrieved 11 October The contemporary history of Latin America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Miller, Rory. The contribution which France made to the success of the American Revolution by providing financial and military support to the American rebels in their war of independence against Britain is well understood.
So, too, are the consequences for the French monarchy of involvement with the American Revolution in the war, since its victory was so promptly followed by the fiscal and political crisis which triggered the French Revolution.
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This is no doubt partly because Spain took a less prominent role in the war and partly because the Spanish Bourbon state did not suffer the catastrophic after-effects that the war brought to its French counterpart. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide.