Sociology and the World’s Religions
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Frontmatter Download Save. Contents Download Save. Buddhism also tends to deemphasize the role of a godhead, instead stressing the importance of personal responsibility Craig Confucianism was the official religion of China from B.
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An extraordinary teacher, his lessons—which were about self-discipline, respect for authority and tradition, and jen the kind treatment of every person —were collected in a book called the Analects. In fact, its teachings were developed in context of problems of social anarchy and a near-complete deterioration of social cohesion. Dissatisfied with the social solutions put forth, Kung Fu-Tzu developed his own model of religious morality to help guide society Smith In Taoism, the purpose of life is inner peace and harmony. Taoist beliefs emphasize the virtues of compassion and moderation.
The central concept of tao can be understood to describe a spiritual reality, the order of the universe, or the way of modern life in harmony with the former two. The ying-yang symbol and the concept of polar forces are central Taoist ideas Smith After their Exodus from Egypt in the thirteenth century B. Talmud refers to a collection of sacred Jewish oral interpretation of the Torah. Jews emphasize moral behavior and action in this world as opposed to beliefs or personal salvation in the next world. Islam is monotheistic religion and it follows the teaching of the prophet Muhammad, born in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, in C.
Muhammad is seen only as a prophet, not as a divine being, and he is believed to be the messenger of Allah God , who is divine.
A Comparative Sociology of World Religions
The followers of Islam, whose U. Today the largest religion in the world, Christianity began 2, years ago in Palestine, with Jesus of Nazareth, a charismatic leader who taught his followers about caritas charity or treating others as you would like to be treated yourself. The sacred text for Christians is the Bible. While Jews, Christians, and Muslims share many of same historical religious stories, their beliefs verge.
While Christians believe that he already appeared in the person of Jesus Christ, Jews and Muslims disagree. Different Christian groups have variations among their sacred texts. Similarly, the Catholic Bible includes the Apocrypha, a collection that, while part of the King James translation, is no longer included in Protestant versions of the Bible. Although monotheistic, Christians often describe their god through three manifestations that they call the Holy Trinity: the father God , the son Jesus , and the Holy Spirit.
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- A Comparative Sociology of World Religions: Virtuosi, Priests, and Popular Religion.
The Holy Spirit is a term Christians often use to describe religious experience, or how they feel the presence of the sacred in their lives. One foundation of Christian doctrine is the Ten Commandments, which decry acts considered sinful, including theft, murder, and adultery. Sociological terms for different kinds of religious organizations are, in order of decreasing influence in society, ecclesia, denomination, sect, and cult.
Religions can be categorized according to what or whom its followers worship. Consider the different types of religious organizations in the United States. What role did ecclesia play in the history of the United States? How have sects tended to change over time? What role do cults have today?
What is your understanding of monotheism versus polytheism? Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Get access to the full version of this article.
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Sociology of Religion
Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. Learn more Check out. Abstract Reviewed by Ian Markham, p. Volume 1 , Issue 1 May Pages