Single Piles in Liquefiable Ground: Seismic Response and Numerical Analysis Methods

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Single Piles in Liquefiable Ground

Home Latest Posts. Civil 3D — Storm Sewer Analysis. Tekla software i — Latest Development for Working with Concrete. The soft soil and sand cushion were represented by an elastic plastic model with the Mohr Coulomb failure criterion, while the piles were assumed to be linearly isotropic elastic. The material properties of the piles, the sand cushion, and the soil layer are presented in Table 3.

This is since the dynamic stiffness of the ground is in general considerably larger than the static stiffness, since dynamic loadings are usually fast and cause very small strain [9]. In this section, first the authors concentrate on the influence of the elastic modulus of piles and second the effect of the pile distance ratio will be discussed. In order to investigate the effect of the elastic modulus of the piles on seismic site response, this parameter is considered to be equal to , , and MPa. The fundamental periods T of improved grounds and the predominant periods of the earthquakes are presented in Table 4 and Table 5 , respectively.

Table 3. Material properties used in the numerical model. Table 4. Fundamental periods of improved grounds. Table 5.

Predominant periods of the earthquakes. Next, the amplification factor for the near-fault earthquakes will be discussed, followed by that of the far-fault earthquakes. At low levels of input motion the maximum surface accelerations are greater than the maximum base accelerations. It means that the soil has a linear elastic behavior and amplifies the earthquakes [2] [3] [19].

As it can be seen in these cases, both the natural ground without stabilization regional and the improved ground under near-fault Loma Prieta and Northridge earthquakes with the PGAs equal to 0.

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It is seen from Figure 1 a that under near-fault Loma Prieta earthquake, the amplification factor for the improved ground with the elastic modulus of piles equal to MPa is slightly less than the amplification factor of the natural ground. The reason is that the improved ground is stiffer than the natural ground and in the case that the soils have linear behavior and bedrock is rigid, the softer site has higher amplification than the stiffer site [19] consequently, the amplification factor for the improved ground with the elastic modulus of piles equal to MPa is less than the amplification factor of the improved ground with the elastic modulus of piles equal to MPa.

On the other hand, under near-fault Northridge earthquake, the improved grounds act in a different way with respect to near-fault Loma Prieta earthquake. Then as the elastic modulus of the piles increases, the amplification factor decreases.


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In order to investigate the effect of the PGA, the accelerograms have also been normalized to 0. Under strong ground motion, the soil exhibits non-linear behavior and instead of amplification, degradation of stiffness and strength happens [19]. In this figure, the previously discussed trend for the improved grounds under near-fault Northridge earthquake with PGA equal to 0.

The natural ground in this study is composed of soft clay and has a large fundamental period. Improvement makes the site stiffer and brings its fundamental period far from the predominant period of the excitation. So it is seen from Figure 2 a that under Loma Prieta earthquake, as the elastic. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Figure 1. Figure 2. Amplification factor on the surface of the improved grounds under far-fault earthquake with: a PGA: 0.

Table 9. From Figure 2 b , it can be observed that the previously discussed trends for the improved ground under far-fault Loma Prieta earthquake with PGA equal to 0. Under far-fault Northridge earthquake, the amplification factor first increases and then decreases with respect to elastic modulus of the piles. The amplification spectrum is defined as the ratio of the acceleration response spectrum of the improved ground to the pertinent spectrum of the bedrock.

The effect of improvement on Sa provides insight to the effect of the improvement on the ground surface response and is defined as the ratio of the amplification spectrum of the improved ground to the pertinent spectrum of the natural ground, which is of primary interest to civil engineering works.


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Figure 3 a and Figure 4 a show that the seismic response of the natural ground under near-fault Loma Prieta earthquake may be slightly different from those of the improved grounds. The results of the site response analysis under near-fault Northridge earthquake predict that the improved ground will respond as a stiffer profile than the original ground. As it can be seen in Figure 5 a and Figure 6 a , the acceleration response spectra have two peaks.

The improved ground exhibits greater peak spectral accelerations at shorter periods, and the peak spectral acceleration of the improved ground at larger periods are smaller than the peak spectral acceleration of the natural ground. Figure 3.

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Figure 4. Therefore, Figures show that the acceleration response spectra depend strongly on the ground motion input. Under Loma Prieta earthquake, the acceleration response spectra have also two peaks, but in contrast with Northridge earthquake, the acceleration response spectra of the natural ground are approximately smaller than the acceleration response spectra of the improved ground at the two peaks. As it can be seen in Figure 7 a and Figure 8 a , under far-fault Loma Prieta earthquake like the near-fault ones Figure 3 and Figure 4 , the acceleration response spectra for the improved ground exhibits greater spectral accelerations at the two peaks.

The significant point that can be seen in Figure 10 c is that the acceleration. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. As it can be seen in Figure 9 a and Figure 10 a , under far-fault Northridge earthquake like the near-fault ones Figure 5 and Figure 6 , the acceleration response spectra have two peaks, the improved ground exhibits greater peak spectral accelerations at shorter periods, and the peak spectral acceleration of the improved ground at larger periods are smaller than the peak spectral acceleration of the natural ground.

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Figure 9. Figure Next the effect of the pile distance ratio on seismic site response will be discussed. It also presents a three-dimensional, dynamic finite element analysis method for piles in liquefiable ground, developed on the basis of this model,. Employing a combination of case analysis, centrifuge shaking table experiments and numerical simulations using the proposed methods, it demonstrates the seismic response patterns of single piles in liquefiable ground.

These include basic force-resistance mode, kinematic and inertial interaction coupling mechanism and major influence factors. It also discusses a beam on the nonlinear Winkler foundation BNWF solution and a modified neutral plane solution developed and validated using centrifuge experiments for piles in consolidating and reconsolidating ground. Rock Slope Stability.