Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease
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Such alterations have been linked to problems with functions as relevant as decision-making, impulsiveness, working memory or attention. We observed that the neurons had a different structure. Now we have taken another step, studying the physiology, or the function of this cerebral cortex, and found that those cellular alterations and slight changes in inhibitory connectivity translate into a deficit of activation of this region and of its neuronal activity rhythm and synchronization," states Dr.
The study that we've published explains some of these cellular alterations and offers for the first time an in vivo study of the physiology of the cerebral cortex, a key structure in executive functions such as concentration, learning or problem-solving. The researchers focused on one of the genes related with Down syndrome.
In other words, when this gene is over-expressed, it reduces the discharge level of the neurons and alters the oscillation of high-frequency waves in the cerebral cortex. Not only that, they observed that the problem originates in neurons responsible for controlling inhibition. In short, if there is less activity and an imbalance in the frequencies of the cerebral waves in Down syndrome it could be due to changes in the connectivity of neurons that should control them.
The study combined experiments in electrophysiology and histology with a computational model that virtually emulates the neuronal circuit of the cerebral cortex. We can make predictions on how the cerebral cortex functions in this pathology, and how the alterations detected will impact cognitive function," concludes the researcher. Materials provided by Centre for Genomic Regulation. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Science News. Journal Reference : M. Ruiz-Mejias, M. Much of this complexity arises during development through the interaction of two distinct neuronal types, glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Interneurons comprise a highly heterogeneous group of neurons that primarily contribute to local assemblies, where they provide inhibitory inputs and they shape different forms of synchronized oscillations.
Our research largely concentrates on the analysis of the mechanisms controlling the the migration, final allocation and connectivity of cortical interneurons, although we are also interested in understanding the general principles regulating the development of other classes of cortical neurons.
We believe that our research may contribute to understanding the etiology of some of the most devastating psychiatric disorders, such as autism or schizophrenia. Distinguishing mechanisms of gamma frequency oscillations in human current source signals using a computational model of a laminar neocortical network. Intracerebral study of gamma rhythm reactivity in the sensorimotor cortex. Eur J Neurosci. Relationship between intracerebral gamma oscillations and slow potentials in the human sensorimotor cortex.
Spectral changes in cortical surface potentials during motor movement. Self-paced movements induce high-frequency gamma oscillations in primary motor cortex. High-gamma band activity of primary hand cortical areas: a sensorimotor feedback efficiency index. Neuromagnetic imaging of movement-related cortical oscillations in children and adults: age predicts post-movement beta rebound. Decoupling the cortical power spectrum reveals real-time representation of individual finger movements in humans.
Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback. Proc Natl Acad Sci. The mirror illusion induces high gamma oscillations in the absence of movement. Event-related beta desynchronization in human subthalamic nucleus correlates with motor performance.
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The suppression of beta oscillations in the primate supplementary motor complex reflects a volatile state during the updating of action sequences. Cereb Cortex.
Gamma-band activation predicts both associative memory and cortical plasticity. Hippocampal and neocortical gamma oscillations predict memory formation in humans. Theta and gamma oscillations during encoding predict subsequent recall. Dynamics of gamma-band activity during an audiospatial working memory task in humans.
Phase sensitivity of synaptic modifications in oscillating cells of rat visual cortex. Theta-gamma coupling increases during the learning of item-context associations.
Cortical Oscillations in Health and Disease
Human memory formation is accompanied by rhinal—hippocampal coupling and decoupling. Nat Neurosci. Sohal VS. Insights into cortical oscillations arising from optogenetic studies.
Biol Psychiatry. Gamma-range synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons can enhance detection of tactile stimuli.
Prefrontal parvalbumin neurons in control of attention. Comparative analyses of adeno-associated viral vector serotypes 1, 2, 5, 8 and 9 in marmoset, mouse and macaque cerebral cortex. Neurosci Res. Entrainment of perceptually relevant brain oscillations by non-invasive rhythmic stimulation of the human brain.
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