A History of Great Ideas in Abnormal Psychology
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He regarded each mental illness as a distinct type and set out to describe its origins, symptoms, course and outcomes. This is the classification system used by the American Psychiatric Association. The first version DSM 1 was published in The latest version is DSM V published in This is published by The World Health Organisation. Mental disorders were included for the first time in ICD 6.
The current version is ICD 10 published in On the basis of the diagnosis, the psychiatrist will prescribe treatment such as drugs, psychosurgery or electroconvulsive therapy. However, since the s psychiatrists have predominantly treated mental illnesses using drugs. However, studies have shown that diagnosis is not a reliable tool.
Rosenhan conducted an experiment where the aim was to see whether psychiatrists could reliably distinguish between people who were mentally ill and those who were not. The study consists of two conditions from which in one the hospital were informed that patients will be coming that are not actually mentally ill when in fact no patients were sent at all.
In this condition the psychiatrists only diagnosed 41 out of patients as being mentally ill when in reality all patients were mentally ill. In the other conditions, 8 people were told to report at the hospital that they hear noises in their head.
As soon as they were administrated, they behaved normally. The doctors in this condition still classified these patients as insane, with a case of dormant schizophrenia. Rosenhan concluded that no psychiatrist can easily diagnose the sane from insane. Though Rosenhan delivered a very accurate report on diagnoses of patients, Rosenhan was criticised for deceiving the hospital for claiming that sane patients were being sent over, though none were actually sent. The main biological explanations of schizophrenia are as follows:. Biochemistry — the dopamine hypothesis argues that elevated levels of dopamine are related to symptoms of schizophrenia.
Neuroanatomy — differences in brain structure abnormalities in the frontal and pre-frontal cortex, enlarged ventricles have been identified in people with schizophrenia. Genetic — there is considerable evidence that the predisposition to develop depression is inherited. Biochemistry, e. Amine hypothesis — low levels of mono amines predominantly noradrenaline and serotonin.
Neuroendocrine hormonal factors — the importance of stress hormones e. The main biological explanations of OCD are as follows:. Genetic — there is some evidence of a tendency to inherit OCD, with a gene Sapap3 recently identified. Neuroanatomy — dysfunctions of the orbital frontal cortex OFC over-activity in basal ganglia and caudate-nucleus thalamus have been proposed.
The film one flew over the cuckoos nest demonstrates the way in which drugs are handed out like smarties merely to keep the patients subdued.
A Beginner’s Guide to Teaching Abnormal Psychology
Antipsychotic drugs can be used to treat schizophrenia by blocking d2 dopamine receptors. There are different generations of antipsychotics:. Less typical antipsychotics — eg pimozide, often used as a last resort when other drugs have failed. Anti psychotics have long been established as a relatively cheap, effective treatment, which rapidly reduce symptoms and enable many people to live relatively normal lives Van Putten, Anti psychotics produce a range of side effects including motor tremors and weight gain.
These lead a proportion of patients to discontinue treatment. At the core of the Renaissance humanism movement is the belief that humans should be shown understanding and compassion.
Historical views of Abnormal Behavior - Nerdynaut
Discover how you can start a career in psychology! Learn more about the fully online psychology degree at King University. The 18th Century was full of early psychologists who worked hard to educate doctors on mental illnesses and how to appropriately treat them. Philippe Pinel, a French physician, performed an experiment in that translated into improved quality of care for patients.
He helped deploy moral management, which sought to treat those displaying abnormal behaviors based on their social, individual, and occupational needs. A large portion of patients who had been kept away from society for decades improved very quickly due to respectful and humane treatment.
The moral treatment of patients was highly prioritized, but there was still room for improvements in quality of care provided to patients. Dorothea Dix played an instrumental role in the field of abnormal psychology during the 19th Century. She investigated the challenges faced by mental health treatment centers and discovered underfunding and an unregulated system contributed to the demise of humane treatment. She lobbied for change and her efforts resulted in the building of asylums for the first time in the United States. Somatogenic: the belief that the mental disorder is derived from one or more physiological origins rather than a psychogenic origin.
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Once hypnotism gained widespread popularity in the 20th Century for its effectiveness in treating abnormal behaviors, the psychogenic perspective became widely accepted. Deinstitutionalization became a common practice in the 20th Century, and many state institutions were shut down. In , the Community Mental Health Centers Act was created to strengthen the future of quality patient care.
As a result, research facilities started garnering substantial financial support, and the idea of community-based care began to flourish.
Abnormal psychology research today places a heavy emphasis on the study of brain matter and neurotransmitters. Scientists and physicians look closely at hormones and genetics to determine their impact on the human brain. Our program will prepare you for careers such as clinical psychologist, neuropsychologist, research psychologist, a clinical social worker, and more. A Short History of Abnormal Psychology. Early Renaissance Individuals with mental disorders were often treated at home. Local parishes began providing financial aid to families impacted by mental illness.